Learning and memory test suite

for your smartphone or tablet powered by Android


Copyright © 1982-2017 by Peter Laursen, DPsySc, DMedSc, PhD



The CFS-Mobile-Menu on Samsung Galaxy Tab A 10.1
Cognitive Function Scanner Mobile Learning and Memory Test Suite Menu.
Note: Buttons for activation of retention parts of the tests are dimmed out.
Samsung Galaxy Tab A 10.1.

✓ Four verbal and non-verbal tests each featuring separate sections for working memory and retention
✓ Automatic randomization of stimuli from built-in pools every time any of the tests is opened to minimize overlearning if repeated examinations of the same individual, e.g. in longitudinal studies
✓ Unique parameterization. In addition to traditional psychometric parameters all four tests feature systematic and extensive qualitative response process recording and display, meeting the wishes of the most demanding psychologist
✓ Accurate and automatic time-taking to 1/10 of a second
✓ 20 different languages
✓ Sound-based test for the examination of clients with lack of vision
✓ Published validation studies based on large random samples of the general Danish population
✓ Examination anywhere
✓ Fixed-length output file for each examination ready for export to relational database systems or datasets for subsequent analysis by means of statistical software like SAS, SPSS, Stata, etc.
✓ Manual in pdf-format (50 pages) with test instructions (in English), installation guide, etc.


Face Recognition Test

The Face Recognition Test consists of three series of portraits presented on the screen of your mobile device. The portraits are of male citizens not publicly known. The first series is composed of nine portraits, which the subject is asked to look at carefully so that he will be able to point them out when he sees them among 25 other portraits. Every stimulus portrait is shown for five seconds. The second series consists of 34 portraits, among which are the nine stimulus portraits. This series is run immediately after the first series and the subject is asked to respond "yes" or "no" to every portrait presented indicating the span of the subject's working memory. The subject gives his responses at his own pace via touch buttons on the smartphone or tablet. Once a response has been given, correction is not possible. The test also includes a retention section to be taken approximately 1 hour after the the learning section.

The following photo shows the response screen of the retention section of the Face Recognition Test on a 10 inch tablet.

The CFS-Mobile-Face Recognition Test on a tablet

Responding to the Face Recognition Test. Samsung Galaxy Tab A 10.1.

The selection and arrangement of the stimulus portraits are made according to a random procedure each time the test is initialized in order to reduce the test re-test effect. The parameters of the test are:

Working memory:

  • Number of unrecognized faces

  • Number of incorrectly recognized faces

  • Response latencies total in seconds

  • 68 qualitative response process parameters explicating cognitive style, etc.


  • Retention:
  • Number of unrecognized faces

  • Number of incorrectly recognized faces

  • Response latencies total in seconds

  • 68 qualitative response process parameters explicating cognitive style, etc.


  • Word Recognition Test

    The second test in the system is the Word Recognition Test offering 20 different languages independently of the language used for the entire examination. The languages available are Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Faroese, Finnish, French, German, Greenlandic, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Sami, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Swedish, and Turkish.

    The Word Recognition Test is technically parallel to the Face Recognition Test, thus allowing direct comparison between verbal and nonverbal functioning. The test consists of three series of adjectives or adverbs presented on the screen of your mobile device. The first series is composed of nine words, which the subject is asked to look at carefully so that he will be able to point them out when he sees them among 25 other words. Every stimulus word is shown for five seconds. The second series consists of 34 words, among which are the nine stimulus words. This series is run immediately after the first series and the subject is asked to respond "yes" or "no" to every word presented indicating the span of the subject's working memory. Once a response has been given, correction is not possible. The test also includes a retention section to be taken approximately 1 hour after the learning section.

    The following two photos show example screens of the Word Recognition Test on a 10 inch tablet. The first photo shows the screen from which the language is chosen for the words to be learned. The second photo shows the response screen of the immediate recognition section of the Word Recognition Test.

    National flags guiding the choise of language The CFS-Mobile-Word Recognition Test on a tablet
    Left or upper photo: Selecting a language. Right or lower photo: Display ready for response.
    Samsung Galaxy Tab A 10.1.

    As with the Face Recognition Test the sequence of the stimulus words is made according to a random procedure each time the test is initialized in order to reduce the test re-test effect. The parameters of the test are:

    Working memory:

  • Number of unrecognized words

  • Number of incorrectly recognized words

  • Response latencies total in seconds

  • 68 qualitative response process parameters explicating cognitive style, etc.


  • Retention:
  • Number of unrecognized words

  • Number of incorrectly recognized words

  • Response latencies total in seconds

  • 68 qualitative response process parameters explicating cognitive style, etc.


  • Sound Recognition Test

    The Sound Recognition Test is a new test to the Cognitive Function Scanner system. It is made over the same model as the Face Recognition Test and the Word Recognition Test but offers environmental sounds as 'objects'. The new test is included to offer a learning and memory test suitable for the assessment of learning and memory of people with impaired vision. All sounds are authentic recordings from actual life situations.

    The test consists of three series of sounds presented via the smartphone's/tablet's loudspeaker or headphone set. The first series is composed of nine sounds, which the subject is asked to carefully listen to so that he will be able to point them out when he is presented for them among 25 other sounds. Every sound stimulus is presented for five seconds with a pause of two seconds so that the client can distinguish between the presented sounds. The second series consists of 34 sounds, among which are the nine stimulus sounds. This series is run immediately after the first series and the subject is asked to respond "yes" or "no" to every sound presented indicating the span of working memory. Once a response has been given, correction is not possible. The test also includes a retention section to be taken approximately 1 hour after the the learning section.

    The following photo shows the performance summary screen on a 10 inch tablet after the retention section is completed.

    The CFS-Mobile-Sound Recognition Test on a tablet

    Note: The display is turned 180 degrees to prevent unintended tapping on buttons
    found along the lower edge of any Android driven mobile device. Samsung Galaxy Tab A 10.1.

    As with the Face Recognition Test and the Word Recognition Test the sequence of the stimulus sounds is made according to a random procedure each time the test is initialized in order to reduce the test re-test effect. The parameters of the test are:

    Working memory:

  • Number of unrecognized sounds

  • Number of incorrectly recognized sounds

  • Response latencies total in seconds

  • 68 qualitative response process parameters explicating cognitive style, etc.


  • Retention:
  • Number of unrecognized sounds

  • Number of incorrectly recognized sounds

  • Response latencies total in seconds

  • 68 qualitative response process parameters explicating cognitive style, etc.


  • Number Learning Test with selective reminding

    In the Number Learning Test the subject is asked to remember eight two-digit numbers, which are randomly generated by the smartphone or tablet in the interval 21-99. The numbers are shown on the screen at intervals of three seconds. When the numbers are presented, the subject is asked to read them aloud concurrently with their appearance on the screen. When all eight numbers have been shown, the subject is asked to respond. He may enter the numbers he remember in any order by means of the numeric keyboard appearing to the right or to the left of the screen according to information on handedness entered at the beginning of the examination. If some numbers are missing, only the missing numbers are shown to him again. After a few seconds, when the screen is cleared, the subject has to enter all eight numbers again. If some of the numbers are still missing, these are shown again. The test continues with this selective reminding until the subject has learned all eight numbers, or to the maximum of 10 trials.

    The following two photos show example screens of the Number Learning Test on a 10 inch tablet. The first photo shows the response screen in one of the 10 possible rounds available for learning. Please note that every number entered is overwritten after it is entered to prevent feedback from already correctly entered numbers and false feedback from incorrectly entered numbers. The second photo shows the performance summary after the completed retention section.

    The CFS-Mobile-Face Recognition Test on a tablet The CFS-Mobile-Face Recognition Test on a tablet
    Left or upper photo: Presentation of numbers to be learned. Right or lower photo: Display
    showing the psychometric parameters after completion of the retention part of the test.
    Samsung Galaxy Tab A 10.1.

    The number series is automatically changed each time the test is initialized.

    Like the three former tests the Number Learning Test includes a section of retention in which the subject is asked to enter the numbers he remembers. This entry is made approximately 1 hour after the learning process is completed. The parameters of the test are:

    Working memory:

  • Number of unrecalled numbers in the first trial

  • Number of "invented" numbers in the first trial

  • Number of perseverations in the first trial

  • Response latency for each response in seconds.


  • Learning:
  • Number of unrecalled numbers in each trial

  • Number of retrieval errors in each trial (i.e. numbers which have been entered correctly at least once but for a period of time were unretrievable during the learning process)

  • Number of "invented" numbers in each trial


  • Number of perseverations in each trial

  • Total number of unrecalled numbers

  • Total number of retrieval errors

  • Total number of "invented" numbers

  • Total number of perseverations

  • Response latencies total in seconds

  • Up to more than 1,000 qualitative response process parameters (depending on the ability to learn) explicating cognitive style, etc.


  • Retention:
  • Number of unrecalled numbers

  • Number of "invented" numbers

  • Number of perseverations

  • Response latencies total in seconds.

  • Up to 90 qualitative response process parameters explicating cognitive style, etc.


  • Technical specification

    The Cognitive Function Scanner Mobile App is developed for use on ordinary smartphones and tablets driven by the Android operating system. The app has shown to work on Android releases from version 2.3 to 7.0 on the following devices:

  • Samsung Galaxy Xcover1, model GT-S5690 (Android 2.3)

  • Sony Xperia Tablet Z (Android 4.2)

  • Samsung Galaxy Xcover3, model SM-G388F (Android 4.4)

  • Samsung Galaxy Xcover3, model SM-G388F (Android 5.1)

  • Huawei Honor 6 (Android 6.0)

  • Samsung Galaxy Tablet A with S Pen, model SM-P580 (Android 6.0)

  • Samsung Galaxy Tablet S3 with S Pen, model SM-T820 (Android 7.0).


  • The current version of Cognitive Function Scanner Mobile, 1.15, takes up approximately 30 MB of the device memory.

    Installation is done via sideloading.

    History

    The prototype to the Cognitive Function Scanner system was developed back in 1982 in the labs of the Danish National Institute of Occupational Health. The purpose was to establish an efficient, standardized, and reliable method for assessment of cognitive status of the general public.

    The Cognitive Function Scanner was, among other things, used in two large-scale longitudinal studies (1982-83 and 1993-94) of cognitive performance of the general Danish population. The results from these two studies were published in two supplement volumes to the scientific journal Acta Neurologica Scandinavica in 1990 and 1997.

    At these occasions an extensive statistical material was collected across several age groups, gender and schooling (vocational training) and a set of norms was established for 45 psychometric parameters covering learning and memory, psychomotor functioning, visuo-spatial functioning, attention, perception, and vigilance. The norms cover the age span from 25 to 75 years. For decades the technical solutions of the system together with the unparalleled set of norms made the Cognitive Function Scanner probably to the most distinctive system of its kind.

    After the Cognitive Function Scanner came commercially available in 1988 it has mostly been used in traditional clinical work within neurology and psychiatry, i.e. for neuropsychological assessment with a diagnostic purpose. The users have been university hospitals and district hospitals all over the Nordic countries.

    In addition to learning and memory tests the prototype and all releases of the Cognitive Function Scanner for the PC-environment included tests of visuo-motor functioning, visuo-spatial functioning, attention, vigilance and concentration to ensure a high degree of comprehensiveness and ecological validity of the battery. These tests were done by means of very accurate graphics tablets featuring pens resembling ordinary ballpoint pens.

    With the introduction of the third generation of the Cognitive Function Scanner in 1996 a detailed time-linked continuous recording of the response process was included. In complex clinical cases these qualitative data can act as a valuable support for the interpretation of psychometric results. In addition to cognitive functioning and style the qualitative data elucidates and documents personality traits related to collaboration during the examination. Like all scoring and time measurements in the Cognitive Function Scanner systems the recording of the response process takes place "in the background", i.e. without any signs which can disturb the tested subject, and with the accuracy of 1/10 of a second.

    Especially for the testing of reaction-time in relation to acquisition or renewal of a driving license, a stand-alone version of the continuous Reaction Time Test was introduced by the late 1990s and marketed as the RT-Profile Test.

    Today the Cognitive Function Scanner Mobile Test Suites carry on the legacy from its predecessor for the PC to smartphones and tablets. A performance test suite for tablets featuring simulated paper and pencil tests for the assessment of psychomotor functioning, visuospatial functioning, attention and vigilance is on its way.

    References

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    Laursen P. A computer-aided technique for testing cognitive functions validated on a sample of Danes 30 to 60 years of age. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 1990; vol. 82, suppl. 131.

    Laursen P. The impact of aging on cognitive functions. An 11 year follow-up study of four age cohorts. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 1997; vol. 96, suppl. 172.

    Laursen P, Eskelinen L. The Cognitive Function Scanner: A computer-aided psychological examination system for neuropsychological evaluation. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 1989; 3: 365.

    Laursen P, Eskelinen L. The Cognitive Function Scanner: A computer-aided psychological examination system for neurobehavioral evaluation. In Johnson BL, ed. Advances in Neurobehavioral Toxicology: Applications in Environmental and Occupational Health. Chelsea: Lewis Publishers Inc., 1990.

    Laursen P, Eskelinen L. Information process recording and psychometrics in computer-aided neuropsychological assessment. The 4th Nordic Neuropsychology Symposium, Espoo, Finland, August 1991.

    Laursen P, Sams T. Establishing a statistically based rejection point in a vigilance test conducted in relation to renewal of driving license based on a large scale study of the general population. Invited speech given at 7th Nordic Meeting in Neuropsychology, Oslo 23-26 July 2001.

    Lezak MD. IQ: R.I.P. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 1988; 10: 351-361.

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    Warrington EK, Taylor AM. Immediate memory for faces: long- or short-term memory? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 1973; 25: 316-322.